HydrothermalVents

Focused flow of black smoker (2004)

Focused flow of black smoker (2004)

A hydrothermal vent structure, with black smoke emanating as part of a focused plume of hot hydrothermal fluid. An instrument has been placed at the base of the venting source to monitor characteristics of the hot fluid. The cylinders in the lower left portion of this image are titanium bottles (Major Samplers) that are used to bring samples of hydrothermal fluids to the surface for laboratory analyses. The platform to which the fluid samplers are attached is the sample basket on the Deep Submergence Vehicle (DSV) Alvin.

Tube worms at EPR (2004)

Tube worms at EPR (2004)

An animal community with tube worms (Riftia pachyptila) thriving on the seafloor with the Axial Summit Trough (AST) of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Shimmering water shown in this image is the result of warm water escaping from the seafloor. In the foreground of this image is the base of an instrument that is used to monitor water characteristics.
Species (common):
Year: 2004
Details:
Media Type: Photograph
Data Type: Photograph
Device Type: Camera:Digital
Feature: EPR:9N:Tica
Investigator: Vicki Ferrini
Expedition: AT11-20
Chief Scientist: Marvin Lilley

Hydrothermal fluids emanating from vent (2004)

Hydrothermal fluids emanating from vent (2004)

Hot hydrothermal fluids are frequently observed emanating from small orifices on the tops and sides of hydrothermal vent structures. The hot fluids are highly localized, and ambient seafloor temperatures (~2 degrees Celsius) are common within a few centimeters of active orifices.
Species (common):
Year: 2004
Details:
Media Type: Photograph
Data Type: Photograph
Device Type: Camera:Digital
Feature: EPR:9N:Tica
Investigator: Vicki Ferrini
Expedition: AT11-20
Chief Scientist: Marvin Lilley
Species: Riftia pachyptila (Tube worm) Bathymodiolus thermophilus

Hydrothermal vent structure at EPR (2004)

Hydrothermal vent structure at EPR (2004)

The base of a hydrothermal vent structure located within an area of diffuse flow. Consistent focused flow of hot hydrothermal fluids can result in the formation of hydrothermal vent structures that are formed as metal rich fluids result in hydrothermal deposits rich in minerals like sulfur, copper, zinc, gold, and iron. Hydrothermal structures can grow to be several meters in height and width.
Species (common):
Year: 2004
Details:
Media Type: Photograph
Data Type: Photograph
Device Type: Camera:Digital
Feature: EPR:9N:Tica
Investigator: Vicki Ferrini
Expedition: AT11-20

Animal communities thriving in extreme environment of EPR (2004)

Animal communities thriving in extreme environment of EPR (2004)

Animal communities like these, thrive in extreme environements in the deep sea. They are subjected to extreme pressure (at over 2 km water depth) and are exposed to high temperatures and chemical compounds that are toxic to most other organisms.
Species (common):
Year: 2004
Details:
Media Type: Photograph
Data Type: Photograph
Device Type: Camera:Digital
Feature: EPR:9N:Tica
Investigator: Vicki Ferrini
Expedition: AT11-20
Chief Scientist: Marvin Lilley
Species: Riftia pachyptila (Tube worm) Bathymodiolus thermophilus Munidopsis subsquamosa

Chemosynthetic organisims clustered near warm water at EPR (2004)

Chemosynthetic organisims clustered near warm water at EPR (2004)

Localized patches of organisms like these tubeworms (Riftia pachyptila) and mussels (Bathymodiolus thermophilus) are clustered around localized areas of warm water released from the seafloor. These sorts of diverse biological communities are chemosynthetic, deriving energy from chemicals dissolved in the warm hydrothermal fluids.
Species (common):
Year: 2004
Details:
Media Type: Photograph
Data Type: Photograph
Device Type: Camera:Digital
Feature: EPR:9N:Tica
Investigator: Vicki Ferrini
Expedition: AT11-20
Chief Scientist: Marvin Lilley

Animals on the seafloor within the Axial Summit Trough (AST) of the EPR (2004)

Animals on the seafloor within the Axial Summit Trough (AST) of the EPR (2004)

Animals like these are distributed on the seafloor within the Axial Summit Trough (AST) of the East Pacific Rise where warm water is released from the seafloor. The warm water is the result of hot fluids deep beneath the seafloor mixing with cooler sea water near the seafloor surface. This kind of warm water flow, is not focused but is distributed over variable spatial scales and is referred to as diffuse flow.
Species (common):
Year: 2004
Details:
Media Type: Photograph
Data Type: Photograph
Device Type: Camera:Digital
Feature: EPR:9N:Tica
Investigator: Vicki Ferrini

Vigorous black smoker Sully at Endeavour (2000)

Video thumbnail for Vigorous black smoker Sully at Endeavour

This vigorously venting black smoker chimney, called Sully, is located in the Main Endeavour Field. This video, taken in 2000 during the Perturbations Cruise onboard the R/V Atlantis, shows Sully billowing 380 deg C fluids. The field was dramatically perturbed by a series of earthquakes in 1999-2000. Water depth is approximately 2190 m. As of 2007, this chimney was venting nearly clear fluids at temperatures well below 300 deg C.
Species (common):
Year: 2000
Details:
Media Type: Video
Data Type: Photograph:Video
Device Type: Camera:Video
Feature: JdF:Endeavour:MEF:Sully

High Resolution Bathymetry of Faulty Towers Complex (1997)

High Resolution Bathymetry of Faulty Towers Complex (1997)

This centimeter-scale resolution bathymetric image of the east face of the Faulty Towers and Twin Peaks Complexes was formed using a 675 kHz scanning sonar mounted on the ROV Jason I. It was compiled from 115 precisely navigated vertical and down-looking surveys using Jason under remote control. The corresponding digital still mosaic of Faulty Towers is shown in the image Photomosaic of Faulty Towers at Mothra.
Species (common):
Year: 1997
Details:
Media Type: Map
Data Type: Bathymetry

Photomosaic of Twin Peaks at Mothra (1997)

Photomosaic of Twin Peaks at Mothra (1997)

Mosaic of the Twin Peaks hydrothermal cluster, which includes two ~8m tall sulfide structures called the Climber (left) and Flying Buttress (right). These comprise the most actively venting portion of the cluster. Smaller extinct sulfide chimneys surround the active structures, with localized areas of diffuse flow emanating from the sulfide talus at the base of the chimneys. This mosaic includes 17 images collected on Jason dive 231 during the 1997 Edifice Rex cruise. Photo mosaic created by Mitchell Elend, University of Washington.