Silica-chloride time-series of Q vent from January 2002 to November 2004. Superimposed on the fluid chemical data are fields of temperature and pressure relevant for high chloride fluids, based on experiments of Fournier  and Von Damm et al. , as described in Foustoukos and Seyfried . For comparison, post-eruptive silica and chloride contents of a Q vent sampled in June 2006 suggest, based on the thermodynamic model of Fontaine et al.
Cross-section of the East Pacific Rise axis between 9°49'N and 9°51'N showing relocated microearthquake locations (grey dots) from 2003-2004 [Waldhauser & Tolstoy, 2011] and inferred associated structure of hydrothermal circulation (figure after Tolstoy et al. ). Sites of up-flow and inferred down-flow are high permeability, whereas the central cracking zone is lower permeability [Crone et al., 2011]. The blue shading in the upper crust indicates an inferred thermal gradient based on vent temperature data [Scheirer et al., 2006, Tolstoy et al., 2008].
Compiled visualization of datasets from the East Pacific Rise (EPR) Integrated Study Site (ISS). At right, ship-based EM300 bathymetry (25-m resolution) shows the axial high between 9°46'N and 9°56'N [White et al., 2006]. A higher resolution bathymetry data set (5-m resolution) collected in 2001 by the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) ABE is overlain and shows greater details of the volcanic terrain [Fornari et al., 2004; Escartin et al., 2007].
Bathymetric map of the East Pacific Rise focused study area near 9°50'N showing the locations of high and low-temperature vents prior to and after the 2005-2006 eruptions. Vent locations active before the 2005-2006 eruptions are labeled on right. All except those labeled in blue continued to be active after the 2005-2006 eruptions. New vent sites that became active after the latest eruptions and were sites of experiment deployments and sampling are labeled on left (e.g., Mkr #s).
Cross-section of the upper ocean crust. Blue and red arrows show cold seawater and hot hydrothermal fluid circulation, respectively. The yellow double arrows indicate CO2 exchange between the atmosphere, the deep ocean, and the subsurface. The numbers indicate the estimated amount of bacterial and archaeal carbon in Pg (10^15 g) in different regions of the oceans and the rock age where hydrothermal fluid circulation in the crust ceases (65 Ma). DIC and POC stand for dissolved inorganic carbon and particulate organic carbon, respectively.
Exposed high temperature upflow zones have only rarely been found on mid-ocean ridge spreading centers. This video shows a very well exposed upflow zone on the western wall of the Endeavour Segment ~ 4 km south of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field. It is composed of a massive, ~ 200 m across and 100 m high continuous exposure of variably altered and mineralized pillow flows, interspersed with lenses of massive sulfide.
Cathedral was discovered in 2000 during the RIDGE NSF-funded 'Perturbations' program. The Cathedral complex is located in the southern portion of the Main Endeavour Field on a small talus rampart on the western axial valley wall. It is believed that the white smokers result from mixing of hydrothermal fluids and seawater in the talus rampart, resulting in precipitation of metals in the subsurface. Temperatures of the white smokers in 2000 ranged from 178°C to 259°C as measured during Jason 2 dive J780. It is believed that this complex resulted from the intrusion event in 1999-2000.
This video of the black smoker chimney called Sully was taken in 2005 during the UW VISIONS’05 program on Jason 2 Dive J2-177. Sully is located in the Main Endeavour Field and in 2005 was venting 356°C. In 2000, temperatures measured 380°C and the smokers were completely uncolonized by tube worms. Since the 1999 intrusive event at Endeavour, vent fluid temperatures at Sully have continued to decrease, although it has not been visited since 2008.
Image of clams Calyptogena magnifica, mussels and sponges at Calyfield along the Galapagos Rift. These clam shells are the size of soup bowls, and can be as large as dinner plates. The fuzzy gray material on the rocks is a new species of sponge that was identified at this site. Image courtesy of Dr. Timothy Shank, WHOI. Copyright WHOI.
Media Type: Photograph
Data Type: Photograph
Device Type: Camera:Digital
Investigator: Timothy Shank
Chief Scientist: Stephen Hammond
Galatheid crabs, or squat lobsters, are scavengers that live throughout the global ocean. They are commonly found in large numbers near hydrothermal vents where food is plentiful. They eat bacteria and dead animals. Image courtesy of Dr. Timothy Shank, WHOI and Dr. Richard Lutz, Rutgers U. Image acquired using a high-definition camera mounted on Alvin that was provided by W. Lange, WHOI. Copyright WHOI.
Media Type: Photograph
Data Type: Photograph:Video:FrameGrab
Device Type: Camera:Video:HD
Investigator: Timothy Shank